Chapter 2: Locomotion and Transport (F5)

  • Locomotion involves the movement of the whole organism from one place to another.
  • Movement refers to a change in position of any part of the an organism's body.
  • Insects and crustaceans such as crabs have exoskeleton.
  • Exoskeleton consists of a hard material formed outside the body.
  • Vertebrates have endoskeletons.
  • An endoskeleton is a hard bony structure made of calcium and phosphate.
  • The human skeleton has two main parts: the axial sekelton and the appendicular skeleton.
  • The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column, sternum and ribs.
  • The appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle, forelimb, pelvic girdle and hindlimb.
  • A joint is the place where bones meet.
  • Bones are held together by ligaments at the joint.
  • Muscles are attached to bones through tendons.
  • A limb moves when a pair of muscles carry out opposite actions.
  • When the biceps contracts and triceps relaxes, the forearm is raised. It is lowered when the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes.
  • Earthworms, grasshoppers and fish move with the help of antagonistic muscles which are attached to the surface of the skeleton.
  • Balanced diet, good posture, proper attire for daily activities and proper exercise techniques keep our skeleton and muscles healthy.
  • Problems associated with movement and support include muscle cramps, osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy and arthritis.
  • Support in plants is achieved by having air sacs, aerenchyma tissue and buoyancy in water for aquatic plants.
  • In terrestrial plants, support can be through turgidity in herbaceous plants or through schlerenchyma tissue and lignified xylem vessels and tracheids in woody plants.


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